Tribes of India - Gond, Santhal, Munda, Khasi, Bhil, Tharu, Bhotia, Buxa

Tribes of India |  List of Indian Tribes | Tribes of India and Their States

The Indian Constitution does not define Scheduled Tribes. According to Article 366 (25) of the Constitution, Scheduled Tribes are communities that have been notified under Article 342 of the Constitution.

For determining tribes in India, their cultural specialization and different habitat form the basis.

Tribes constitute 8.6% of the total population in India. Their maximum population is found in Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha. Tribal communities are not found in Punjab, Haryana, Chandigarh, Delhi, and Puducherry. 

Bhil is the largest tribal group in India, with a population of 17071049. The Gond tribal group is the second largest tribal group by population (13256928). Similarly, Santhal (6,570,807) and Nekada (3.787,639) at number three and fourth respectively and Oraon (3,682,992) at number five are tribal groups.

According to tribal areas, the country is divided into seven parts. (1) Northern Region, (2) Northeast Region, (3) Eastern Region, (4) Central Zone, (5) Western Region, (6) Southern Region, and (7) Island Region.

Tribes of India
Tribes of India - Gond, Santhal, Munda, Khasi, Bhil, Tharu, Bhotia, Buxa

Classification of the present population of the Indian subcontinent on the basis of species. Dr. Guha has done it. The classification of Dr. Guha is as follows:

1. Negrito: Tribes of Andaman and Nicobar and Kadar of South India, Irula, and Panian.

2. Proto-Australoid: Chenchu ​​Malayan, Kuramba, Yoruba, Munda, Kol, Santhal, and Bhil.

3. Mongoloid: These people of the sub-Himalayan region, Asom, and Myanmar. People living on the border and in Sikkim and Bhutan are found.

4. Mediterranean: This species is found among ordinary people in Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab, West Bengal, and Malabar Coast.

5. Western Brachy Cephals: This species is found in Saurashtra (Kathi), Gujarat (Bania), West Bengal (Kayastha), Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Bihar and eastern Uttar Pradesh in the Ganges delta.

6. Nordics: People of northwest India.

List of Major tribes of India

Tharu: The Tharu tribe resides in the Terai region of Gorakhpur district of Uttar Pradesh from the Nainital district of Uttarakhand and the Terai region of Bihar. They believe in Hinduism.

Tharu tribes celebrate Diwali as a mourning festival. It is the practice of a joint family. Tharu is considered to be of the Kirat dynasty. Tharu tribe is the largest tribe in Uttarakhand.

Bhotia: The tribe lives in the hills of Uttarakhand and in the lowlands of Uttar Pradesh. Bhotias are of Mongol species.

The Bhutia the tribe is found in Sikkim, West Bengal, and Tripura.

Jaunsari: Jaunsari is a farming tribe with permanent residence in Uttarakhand. This tribe is also found in Uttar Pradesh. In these ' polygamy marriages' is found.

Buxa: This tribe is found mainly in Nainital, Pauri, and Garhwal districts of Uttarakhand and in some parts of Uttar Pradesh. Anulom and antilom marriage are prevalent among these tribes. The Buxa tribe belongs to the Rajput dynasty.

Raji: This tribe is found in Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh. Locally they are also called Banraut. Their religion is Hindu. The 'jhumming' system of agriculture is very prevalent among these tribes.

Kharwar: The Kharwar and Khairwar tribes reside in Deoria, Ballia, Ghazipur, Varanasi, and Sonbhadra districts of Uttar Pradesh. They are extremely angry and physically strong by nature. It is the second major tribe of Uttar Pradesh.

Gaddi: This tribe resides in the Dhauladhar category of Western Himalayas in Kangra and Chamba districts of Himachal Pradesh. The Gaddi tribe is an ancient tribe in the Dhauladhar category. Gaddis consider themselves descendants of the Garhwa (Rajasthan) rulers.

Among the main tribes of the Dhauladhar category are Gaddis, Ladakhi, Gujjar, Bakarwal, Laholi, Bari, etc.

Gonds: They are native to Gondwanaland due to which they are called Gonds. This tribal group is found in Bihar, West Bengal, Jharkhand, Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Odisha, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh (including Telangana) Gujarat. These people mainly depend on hunting and fish.

The Gond tribes also do relocation agriculture. Gonds wear less clothes, but women are very fond of wearing jewelry. Animal husbandry is an important practice. The Gond tribal group is the largest tribal group in Uttar Pradesh.

Bhil: The word Bhil originated from the Tamil word Villuvar which means bow.

This tribe is domiciled in the Rajasthan provinces of India including Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra Karnataka, Tripura, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana. Dhumar dance has special significance in the Bhils culture.

Santhals: These tribes are native to the Santhal Parganas region. Because of which they are known as Santhal. As per the 2011 census, the Santhal people live in Bihar, Tripura, West Bengal, Jharkhand, and Odisha. Their anatomy comes from the Dravidian people.

Munda: This the tribe lives in the states of Jharkhand, West Bengal, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Tripura, Odisha, and Bihar. The Munda tribe celebrates many festivals, of which Bhage, Fagu, Karma, Sarhul, and Sohrai are prominent. The Sarhul festival is celebrated during the month of March-April. It is a festival of flowers.

Korba: Korba tribes are mainly found in Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh. This tribe mainly depends on wild tuber origin and hunting. Some Korba are also cultivators.

Coal: Agriculture is the main occupation of this tribe living in Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, and Maharashtra.

Manganiyar: is a Muslim tribe inhabiting the deserts of Rajasthan? This tribe is noted for its musical tradition. They are also found in large numbers in the Sindh province of Pakistan.

Khasi: The Khasi tribe mainly resides in the north-eastern states of Meghalaya, Assam, and Mizoram. This tribe does jhuming agriculture.

The Toda the tribe lives on the Nilgiri hills. They are also known as Todi and Tuda. These people claim that they are descendants of Aryans. Their main occupation is pastoralism. In the Toda tribe, polygamy is prevalent.

Jarwa: The most primitive tribe of India is the Jarawa. It lives on the southern Andaman Islands and the central Andaman Islands in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Their residential areas were declared prohibited for human activities.

Tribes of India and their states, Tribes of India and states

# 01. Tribes of Arunachal Pradesh: Apatani, Dafla, Mishmi, Singpo.

# 02. Tribes of Andhra Pradesh (including Telangana) - Bodo Gadaba. Bondo Poroja, Chenchu, Yerukala, Dongria Kondh, Gutob Gadaba, Khond Poroja, Kolam, Kondareddy, Konda Savara, Kutia Khond, Perengi Poroja, Thoti.

# 03. Tribes of Bihar (including Jharkhand) - Santhal, Munda, Ho, Birhor, Uraon, Korwa, Kharia, Mall-Pahari, Asura, Birhor, Birjia, Sauria Pahadia, Parhiya, Savar.

# 04. Tribes of Gujarat - Bhil, Banjara, Koli, Khari, Kathodi, Kotwalia, Padhar, Siddi, Kolgha.

# 05. Tribes of Karnataka - Yarawa, Naukada, Toulu, Kodagu, Genu Kuruba, Korga.

# 06. Tribes of Kerala - Ullada, Mopala, Nair, Malkara, Alar, Cholanikan, Kadar, Kattanayakan, Kurumba, Korga

# 07. Tribes of Madhya Pradesh - Bhil, Agariya, Kol, Korku, Kamar, Baiga, Gond (God - the largest tribal group in the country)

# 08. Tribes of Chhattisgarh - Muria, Kavardha

# 08. Tribes of Maharashtra - Koli, Barley, Katkaria (Kathodia), Kolam, Maria Gond.

# 09. Tribes of Manipur - Kuki, Maram Naga

# 10. Odisha tribes - Birhor, Bondo, Didai, Dongria-Khond, Juang, Kharia, Kutia Kondh, Lanjia, Saura, Lodha, Mankidia, Pauri Bhuia, Saura, Chutia Bhujia.

# 11. Rajasthan tribes - Bhil, Meena, Garasia, Banjara, Bagdi, Rebari, Sehriya,

# 12. Tribes of Tamil Nadu - Kattanayakan, Kota, Kurumba, Irular, Panion, Toda, Badga.

# 13. Tribes of Tripura - Reanga, Tripuri.

# 14. U.P. Tribes (including Uttarakhand) - Jaunsari, Buxa, Bhotia, Tharu, Khasa, Buxa, Raji.

# 15. Tribes of West Bengal - Birhor, Lodha, Toto, Lodha, Bhumij, Asura, Mahali Bengal.

# 16. Tribes of Andaman and Nicobar - Sentinelli, Saintlies, Auje, Jarva, Jarna, Shompan, Great Andamanese, Jarva, Onghe (Onje).

# 17. Tribes of Lakshadweep - Malmi

# 18. Tribes of Sikkim - Lepcha

# 19. Tribes of Punjab - Sansi

# 20. Tribes of Jammu and Kashmir - Bakarwal, Gujjar, Chowpan, Watal.

# 21. Tribes of Himachal Pradesh - Gaddi, Kinnaur, Jadda, Gujjar, State Pangwali.

# 22. Tribes of Dadra and Nagar Haveli - Barli, Koli, Kathodia.

# 23. Tribes of Assam - Lushai, Boje, Rabha, Tagin, Karbi.


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