Soils of India, Alluvial Soil, Black Soil, Red Soil, Laterite Soil, Desert Soil, Mountain Soil

Table of Content - Soils of India, Indian Soil, Alluvial Soil, Black Soil, Red Soil, Laterite Soil, Type of Soils, Type of Soil in India, Desert Soil, Mountain Soil, Grass and Brown Soil, Snow Areas

Soils are the property of the Indian farmer. On this, the entire agricultural production of the country depends.

The study of soil is called Pedology. Pedogenesis is a complex and continuous process.


Soil Classification/Types of soils in India - The Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) in 1986 identified 8 major soils in the country.




Indian Soils and their Area
Types of soil
Area (%)
Alluvial soil
43.40
Black soil
15.20
Red soil
18.60
Laterite soil
3.70
Desert soil
4.00
Mountain soil
5.50
Brown and brown soil
------
Snowfield 
1.20

Soils of India
Soils of India - Alluvial Soil, Black Soil, Red Soil, Laterite Soil

# 01. Alluvial Soil - Alluvial soils are found in the vast plains, Narmada, Tapti, Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, Cauvery valleys, and coastal parts of Kerala.


These soils are made from materials not contaminated by rivers. The floodplain coop is locally called Khadar, and the old tremor which is unaffected by erosion is called Bangar.

It is found in an abundance of potash and calcium and deficiency of nitrogen and humus.

This soil is good for the cultivation of paddy, wheat, oilseeds, sugarcane, pulses, etc.

# 02. Black Soil - Black soil has developed from weathering of Deccan lava in Maharashtra, Western Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, & Tamil Nadu.


These are locally known as Regur or Black Cotton Soil and Internationally known as Tropical Charanojam.

These soils are rich in iron, calcium, potash, aluminum, and magnesium carbonate, but they lack nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic matter.

This soil has high moisture retention capacity, which becomes sticky when wet and cracks occur on drying. A. They have high fertility.

This soil is suitable for the cultivation of cotton, tur, tobacco, coarse grains, linseed, etc.


# 03. Red Soil - This soil is found in extensive areas of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, and Jharkhand.


It is made of fission and decomposition of granite and fine rocks.

It's red color is due to the presence of iron oxide (Fe2O3).

This soil is rich in iron, aluminum, but lack of bacterial substance, nitrogen, and phosphorus.

These are highly leached soils. It is suitable for food crops like millet.


# 04. Laterite Soil - This soil in India is called Meghalaya Plateau,  and It is found in areas of the Eastern Ghats & Western Ghats.


They have a brick-like appearance when soaked they become soft and hard on drying.

These soils are rich in iron and aluminum but they deficiency nitrogen, potash, potassium, lime, and organic matter.

Their fertility is low, but with the use of fertilizer, cashew, etc. crops can be grown in them. 


# 05. Mountain Soil - It is mainly found on the Himalayas, Western Ghats, Eastern Ghats, other mountain ranges of peninsular India.


It is found in excess of bacteria and deficiency of potash, phosphorus, and lime. This soil is suitable for the production of tea, coffee, spices, and fruits.

# 06. Desert Soil - Desert Soil is found in Rajasthan, Saurashtra, Kutch, Haryana, and South Punjab.


These are gravel-rich soils that deficiency of nitrogen and organic matter and have varying amounts of calcium carbonate. only millet, millet, jowar, and coarse grains are grown.

# 07. Peaty and Marshy Soil - This soil is found in areas submerged during the rainy season.


These soils are black, heavy, and highly acidic and are suitable for paddy cultivation. These soils are found in Kerala.


# 08. Saline and Alkaline Soil - These soils are found in the dry parts of Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, and Maharashtra.


They are known by local names like Reh, Kallar, Osar, Rathad, Thur, Chopan, etc. These crops include rice, wheat, cotton, sugarcane, tobacco, etc.